Welcome to my homepage. I am Associate Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam Law School. In addition, I am the director of the Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence.

As of August 1, 2022, I have been appointed as Professor of Philosophy of Law at the Faculty of Law of Maastricht University.

Research interests
"I’m an analytical philosopher. Let me give you the smaller picture."

My research interests revolve around the question of how liberal democracies should deal with cases of colliding fundamental rights or conflicts between fundamental rights and other central ideals within constitutional democracies: the rule of law or democracy. I study fundamental rights both as legal-philosophical concepts and as legally enforceable rights as they have been formalized in human rights conventions, especially the ECHR.

I have analyzed a myriad of such legal disputes and policy dilemmas: the discussion of the crucifix in Italian public school before the EC(t)HR; the role of human rights in the regulation of transnational clinical trials; The shared responsibility of nation states to protect fundamental human rights for all; and the tension between universal human rights and national identity.

Recent publications (in English):

Core publications (in English):


Since 2013, my research interests increasingly gravitated towards the legal regulation of childhood vaccination against infectious diseases. Several (conflicting) fundamental rights are pivotal in these discussions: the freedom of religion and conscience of non-vaccinating parents, the right to bodily integrity, but also the right to health of unvaccinated children – in particular Art. 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, stating that in all actions concerning children, their best interests must be a primary consideration of state agencies. Other relevant considerations are the responsibility of the state to protect public health and vulnerable citizens.
I currently work on a monograph entitled Inducing Immunity: Regulating Collective Immunisation in Times of Vaccine Hesitancy (with Marcel Verweij). In this book, we analyse the conditions under which a liberal-democratic government should make vaccination against infectious diseases such as such as measles, polio and whooping cough mandatory.

Unequal treatment of MSM men in blood donation policies
Together with Marcel Verweij I have conducted an ethical research project for Sanquin into the recruitment policy of donors. Stricter rules currently apply to men who have sex with men (MSM) than to other donors. Some see this as discriminatory and stigmatising How can the safety of donor blood be guaranteed without discriminatory donor recruitment policies? Our report was presented to the Dutch House of Representatives by Minister van Ark on March 11, 2021 and has lead to more inclusive donor selection. [press release]

The Paul Scholten Centre for Jurisprudence (PSC) is the meta-juridical research institute in the Amsterdam Law School. We are the pivotal centre for the legal-theoretical, i.e. empirical, historic and normative study of the law. Our research revolves around our research program Law in Contexts.

Visting scholarships
In 2015 and 2016 I was affiliated as a "visiting fellow" to Ripple (Research in Political Philosophy in Leuven) at the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Leuven. Before that, I was a visiting scholar at the Centre for the Study of Social Justice of Oxford University (2013), University College London (2005), Columbia University (2004) and Ottawa University (1997-1998).

Supervision of PhD students:
Courses taught:

Before I came to Amsterdam, I taught political theory at Radboud University Nijmegen and legal theory at Tilburg University.